The World Bank (WB) is preparing a new wide-ranging study on population ageing and the organization of health and social care in Brazil. It is intended to serve as “an instrument of policy dialogue with a future Brazilian government about the challenges and options to improve efficiency and equity in healthcare and social care while responding to population aging within a tight fiscal context”. Technical Director of ILC-Brazil Ina Voelcker and ILC-Brazil President, Alexandre Kalache are contributing authors to this study. In May, they were part of a three day World Bank workshop in Rio de Janeiro where the main authors presented their first drafts. The eminent group of participating national and international academics and WB Directors were joined by representatives from the Brazilian Federal Ministries of Health and Social Development, as well as the WHO and UNFPA.